Photoinduced Structural Dynamics of Molecular Systems Mapped by Time-Resolved X-ray Methods

We review the tremendous advances in ultrafast X-ray science, over the past 15 years, making the best use of new ultrashort X-ray sources including table-top or large-scale facilities. Different complementary X-ray-based techniques, including spectroscopy, scattering, and diffraction, are presented. The broad and expanding spectrum of these techniques in the ultrafast time domain is delivering new insight into the dynamics of molecular systems, of solutions, of solids, and of biosystems. Probing the time evolution of the electronic and structural degrees of freedom of these systems on the time scales of femtosecond to picoseconds delivers new insight into our understanding of dynamical matter.


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