Presentation attack detection in voice biometrics

Recent years have shown an increase in both the accuracy of biometric systems and their practical use. The application of biometrics is becoming widespread with fingerprint sensors in smartphones, automatic face recognition in social networks and video-based applications, and speaker recognition in phone banking and other phone-based services. The popularization of the biometric systems, however, exposed their major flaw --- high vulnerability to spoofing attacks. A fingerprint sensor can be easily tricked with a simple glue-made mold, a face recognition system can be accessed using a printed photo, and a speaker recognition system can be spoofed with a replay of pre-recorded voice. The ease with which a biometric system can be spoofed demonstrates the importance of developing efficient anti-spoofing systems that can detect both known (conceivable now) and unknown (possible in the future) spoofing attacks. Therefore, it is important to develop mechanisms that can detect such attacks, and it is equally important for these mechanisms to be seamlessly integrated into existing biometric systems for practical and attack-resistant solutions. To be practical, however, an attack detection should have (i) high accuracy, (ii) be well-generalized for different attacks, and (iii) be simple and efficient. One reason for the increasing demand for effective presentation attack detection (PAD) systems is the ease of access to people's biometric data. So often, a potential attacker can almost effortlessly obtain necessary biometric samples from social networks, including facial images, audio and video recordings, and even extract fingerprints from high resolution images. Therefore, various privacy protection solutions, such as legal privacy requirements and algorithms for obfuscating personal information, e.g., visual privacy filters, as well as, social awareness of threats to privacy can also increase security of personal information and potentially reduce the vulnerability of biometric systems. In this chapter, however, we focus on presentation attacks detection in voice biometrics, i.e., automatic speaker verification (ASV) systems. We discuss vulnerabilities of these systems to presentation attacks (PAs), present different state of the art PAD systems, give the insights into their performances, and discuss the integration of PAD and ASV systems.

Vielhauer, Claus
Savoy Place, London WC2R 0BL, UK, The Institution of Engineering and Technology

 Record created 2017-09-19, last modified 2018-03-17

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