Journal article

The DEMO wall load challenge

For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m(-2). This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m(-2) for the design EU DEMO1 2015 assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m(-2) (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m(-2) are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.


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