Ribosome profiling and dynamic regulation of translation in mammals

Protein synthesis is an energy-demanding cellular process. Consequently, a well-timed, fine-tuned and plastic regulation of translation is needed to adjust and maintain cell states under dynamically changing environments. Genome-wide monitoring of translation was recently facilitated by ribosome profiling, which uncovered key features of translation regulation. In this review, we summarize recent ribosome profiling studies in mammals providing novel insight in dynamic translation regulation, notably related to circadian rhythms, diurnal feeding/fasting cycles, cell cycle progression, stress responses, and tRNA landscapes. In particular, recent results show that regulating translation initiation and elongation represent important mechanisms used in mammalian cells to rapidly modulate protein expression in dynamically changing environments.


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