Infoscience

Thesis

Ordered nanostructures on silicon substrates: from the top-down to the bottom-up

Silicon is today the main material used in electronics. It is a very advanced and mature technology. It is therefore clear that new technological concepts and materials should be introduced through the integration on the silicon platform. III-V semiconductors, such as GaAs and InAs, are high performance semiconductors, with direct bandgap and high carrier mobility, what makes them very prominent candidates for future electronics and optoelectronics. Lattice, thermal and polarity mismatch have been for decades limiting their integration on Si in the form of thin film technology. The nanowire geometry brings new prospects in this direction by reducing the contact area between mismatched materials,. Now, while growth of defect-free III-V structures on silicon is important, use in applications requires the nanostructures to be placed deterministically following a certain design/order. In this thesis we have studied different mechanisms to obtain ordered nanostructures on a silicon substrate, with the goal of increasing its functionality. The core part of this work was dedicated to the integration of III-V nanowires on Si in the formof ordered arrays. We have considered both GaAs and InAs nanowires. This process has several requirements: substrate fabrication and the growth process should be CMOS compatible, nanowires within the arrays should be grown vertically with a yield close to 100% and nanowires should be clones-looking and performing the same. An additional point to consider is that the fabrication process should be compatible with large scale techniques. The substrate requirements for obtaining ordered arrays of Ga-assisted GaAs nanowires on silicon were identified. In particular, we focused on the initial stages of growth, that turned to be key for achieving a high yield in the arrays. We found that the positioning of the Ga droplet within the predefined holes on the substrate determined whether the nanowire would grow perpendicularly to the substrate. Our HRTEMstudies on the titled nanowires show that the initial nanowire seeds seem to nucleate at the corner of the nanoscale holes. Instead, the crystal seeds of vertical nanowires occupy homogeneously the nanoscale holes. Achieving high yield in the growth of GaAs arrays on silicon also allowed us to study their evolution in time. We demonstrated that there is an incubation time for nanowires to start growing. This incubation time is different from NW to NWand leads to a relatively broad length distribution. We proposed a solution and showed how an increase in the supersaturation in the Ga droplet leads to the formation of homogeneous arrays. Growth of InAs nanowires in ordered arrays on silicon was based on the concept of guided growth. We used a SiO2 nanotube templates to promote vertical growth. Due to the directionality of MBE, achieving growth inside a nanotube was especially challenging. Our results provided new insights on the role of different pathways of the In and As4 adatoms during growth. In this part, large scale patterning by phase shift photolithography was demonstrated as an alternative to the conventionally used electron beam lithography. Stain etching method for producing porous silicon was applied on top-bottom fabricated Si micropillars. This led to geometrically driven electrochemical dissolution of silicon trough the center of the microstructure forming microtubes. The optical properties were also studied and used to produce functional 3D LED.

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