Rack-Scale Memory Pooling for Datacenters

The rise of web-scale services has led to a staggering growth in user data on the Internet. To transform such a vast raw data into valuable information for the user and provide quality assurances, it is important to minimize access latency and enable in-memory processing. For more than a decade, the only practical way to accommodate for ever-growing data in memory has been to scale out server resources, which has led to the emergence of large-scale datacenters and distributed non-relational databases (NoSQL). Such horizontal scaling of resources translates to an increasing number of servers that participate in processing individual user requests. Typically, each user request results in hundreds of independent queries targeting different NoSQL nodes - servers, and the larger the number of servers involved, the higher the fan-out. To complete a single user request, all of the queries associated with that request have to complete first, and thus, the slowest query determines the completion time. Because of skewed popularity distributions and resource contention, the more servers we have, the harder it is to achieve high throughput and facilitate server utilization, without violating service level objectives. This thesis proposes rack-scale memory pooling (RSMP), a new scaling technique for future datacenters that reduces networking overheads and improves the performance of core datacenter software. RSMP is an approach to building larger, rack-scale capacity units for datacenters through specialized fabric interconnects with support for one-sided operations, and using them, in lieu of conventional servers (e.g. 1U), to scale out. We define an RSMP unit to be a server rack connecting 10s to 100s of servers to a secondary network enabling direct, low-latency access to the global memory of the rack. We, then, propose a new RSMP design - Scale-Out NUMA that leverages integration and a NUMA fabric to bridge the gap between local and remote memory to only 5× difference in access latency. Finally, we show how RSMP impacts NoSQL data serving, a key datacenter service used by most web-scale applications today. We show that using fewer larger data shards leads to less load imbalance and higher effective throughput, without violating applications¿ service level objectives. For example, by using Scale-Out NUMA, RSMP improves the throughput of a key-value store up to 8.2× over a traditional scale-out deployment.

Bugnion, Edouard
Falsafi, Babak
Lausanne, EPFL
Other identifiers:
urn: urn:nbn:ch:bel-epfl-thesis7612-7

 Record created 2017-05-24, last modified 2019-12-05

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