Novel Sample Formulations for Pure and Persistent Hyperpolarized Solutions via Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allows one to study and analyze the structure, motions and interactions of a broad variety of molecules. However, this technique has a major inconvenience: its low sensitivity, which therefore often results in the use of highly concentrated samples in order to observe tiny signals. As recently as 2003, a new technique known as dissolution-DNP or d-DNP was invented by Ardenkjaer-Larsen et al. to overcome this drawback and to get more intense NMR signals in solution with enhancements factors larger than 10'000. This method consists essentially in mixing paramagnetic species (radicals) with samples containing the metabolites to be analyzed. These mixtures are then rapidly frozen at very low temperatures (T = 1.2 – 4.2 K) in liquid helium and, by applying a proper microwave irradiation, the polarization of the electrons can be transferred to nuclei such as 1H or 13C. This allows one to build up and store the enhanced magnetization of these nuclei and then to dissolve the samples by injecting a superheated solvent via a dissolution stick. The resulting hyperpolarized solution can be finally transferred to an NMR spectrometer where the signals can be recorded. In the first two chapters of this thesis, the principles of NMR are introduced and the theory of DNP is explained in some detail. The dissolution equipment used in our laboratory and its different parts are shown, in particular the DNP polarizer where the transfer of polarization from electrons to nuclei occurs, the microwave source that is connected to the polarizer, and the dissolution system itself, which comprises the dissolution stick and the dissolution transfer line. Another chapter is dedicated to the optimization of our DNP setup in order to achieve the highest possible polarization before the dissolution process. Several radicals are tested under carefully controlled conditions to identify the best suited for our DNP system. Furthermore, the modulation of the microwave frequency has been optimized in order to enhance the polarization transfer. Finally, a number of dissolution experiments are presented that relate to different projects that have been carried out in the course of this thesis. The extent of the polarization can be determined accurately by looking directly at the hyperpolarized NMR spectrum. Filterable polymers containing suitable radical moieties have been synthesized in order to obtain pure hyperpolarized solutions. A final chapter outlines future applications and projects that can benefit from dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.

Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
Lausanne, EPFL
Other identifiers:
urn: urn:nbn:ch:bel-epfl-thesis7507-6

 Record created 2017-01-25, last modified 2018-03-17

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