Concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) columns offer significant advantages over columns made of either steel or concrete alone, such as large energy dissipation and increased strength and stiffness. To further improve the seismic performance of these columns, an experimental investigation was conducted into CFT columns using ultrahigh-strength steel. More specifically, seven square and circular specimens made with high-strength and conventional steel were subjected to constant compressive axial load and cyclic flexural load protocols with two and 20 cycles imposed at each drift level. Based on the test results, the influence on the CFT’s cyclic behavior of the high-strength steel, crosssectional shape, axial load, and number of cycles in lateral loading history was studied. In comparison with the conventional steel specimens, larger elastic deformation, higher strength, and delay of local buckling were observed in the high-strength steel specimens, while compared with the circular specimens, the square specimens sustained larger drift angles without fracture of their steel tubes because of the development and progress of serious local buckling. Furthermore, a simple analytical model based on the concept of the superposed strength method was proposed. The accuracy of this model was confirmed with the experimental results.