Journal article

In Situ TEM Analysis of Organic-Inorganic Metal-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells under Electrical Bias

Changes in the nanostructure of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskite solar cells are assessed as a function of current-voltage stimulus by biasing thin samples in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Various degradation pathways are identified both in situ and ex situ, predominantly at the positively biased MAPbI(3) interface. Iodide migrates into the positively biased charge transport layer and also volatilizes along with organic species, which triggers the nucleation of PbI2 nanoparticles and voids and hence decreases the cell performance.


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