The strong space charge regime of future operation of CERN's circular particle accelerators is investigated andmitigation strategies are developed in the framework of the present thesis. The intensity upgrade of the injector chain of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prepares the particle accelerators to meet the requirements of the High-Luminosity LHC project. Producing the specified characteristics of the future LHC beams imperatively relies on injecting brighter bunches into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the downstream Proton Synchrotron (PS) and eventually the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The increased brightness, i.e. bunch intensity per transverse emittance, entails stronger beam self-fields which can lead to harmful interaction with betatron resonances. Possible beamemittance growth and losses as a consequence thereof threaten to degrade the beam brightness. These space charge effects are partly mitigated by the upgrade of the PSB and PS injection energies. Nevertheless, the space charge tune spreads of the future injector beams are found to exceed the values reached by present LHC or other intense fixed target physics beams. This thesis project comprises three key tasks: detailed modelling of space charge effects, measurement at the CERN machines and mitigation of space charge impact. Throughout the course of this thesis, the simulation tool PyHEADTAIL has been developed and extended to model 3D space charge effects in circular accelerators across the wide energy range from PSB to SPS. The implementation for hardwareaccelerating GPU architectures enables extensive studies, especially when employing the self-consistent particle-in-cell algorithm. The implemented models have been benchmarked with analytical results for space charge beam dynamics. In particular, the spectra of quadrupolar pick-ups - which provide a direct measurement method for the space charge tune shift - have been simulated and compared with the derived theory. The space charge situation at the SPS injection plateau has been extensively investigated in the course of comprehensive measurement studies, resulting in the identification of an optimal working point region for the SPS. The interplay of space charge and the horizontal quarter-integer resonance has been scrutinised in measurement, theory and simulation. Last but not least, a new LHC beam type with a hollow longitudinal phase space distribution has been developed for the PSB and proved to substantially mitigate space charge impact on the PS injection plateau.