A reduced order model-based preconditioner for the efficient solution of transient diffusion equations
This paper presents a novel class of preconditioners for the iterative solution of the sequence of symmetric positive-definite linear systems arising from the numerical discretization of transient parabolic and selfadjoint partial differential equations. The preconditioners are obtained by nesting appropriate projections of reduced-order models into the classical iteration of the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG). The main idea is to employ the reduced-order solver to project the residual associated with the conjugate gradient iterations onto the space spanned by the reduced bases. This approach is particularly appealing for transient systems where the full-model solution has to be computed at each time step. In these cases, the natural reduced space is the one generated by full-model solutions at previous time steps. When increasing the size of the projection space, the proposed methodology highly reduces the system conditioning number and the number of PCG iterations at every time step. The cost of the application of the preconditioner linearly increases with the size of the projection basis, and a trade-off must be found to effectively reduce the PCG computational cost. The quality and efficiency of the proposed approach is finally tested in the solution of groundwater flow models. (C) 2016 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.