Oxypurinol directly and immediately activates the drug-specific T cells via the preferential use of HLA-B*58:01

Allopurinol (ALP) hypersensitivity is a major cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions and is strongly associated with the HLA-B*58:01 allele. However, it can occur in the absence of this allele with identical clinical manifestations. The immune mechanism of ALP-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions is poorly understood, and the T cell-reactivity pattern in patients with or without the HLA-B*58:01 allele is not known. To understand the interactions among the drug, HLA, and TCR, we generated T cell lines that react to ALP or its metabolite oxypurinol (OXP) from HLA-B*58:01(+) and HLA-B*58:01(-) donors and assessed their reactivity. ALP/OXP-specific T cells reacted immediately to the addition of the drugs and bypassed intracellular Ag processing, which is consistent with the "pharmacological interaction with immune receptors" (p-i) concept. This direct activation occurred regardless of HLA-B*58:01 status. Although most OXP-specific T cells from HLA-B*58:01(+) donors were restricted by the HLA-B*58:01 molecule for drug recognition, ALP-specific T cells also were restricted to other MHC class I molecules. This can be explained by in silico docking data that suggest that OXP binds to the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B*58:01 with higher affinity. The ensuing T cell responses elicited by ALP or OXP were not limited to particular TCR Vβ repertoires. We conclude that the drug-specific T cells are activated by OXP bound to HLA-B*58:01 through the p-i mechanism.

Published in:
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 192, 7, 2984-93

 Record created 2016-11-17, last modified 2019-01-08

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