Infoscience

Thesis

Nickel-catalyzed Hydrosilylation of Alkenes and Transition-Metal-Free Intermolecular α-C-H Amination of Ethers

Transition-metal-catalyzed hydrosilylation of olefins is one of the most important methods for the preparation of organosilicon compounds, which have broad applications in both synthetic and material chemistry. For decades, precious metals, principally platinum-based complexes, have been utilized as catalysts for olefin hydrosilylation. However, due to the high and volatile cost and low abundance of Pt, the development of active and selective catalysts based on Earth-abundant metals is highly desirable. In the first chapter, a short overview of state-of-the-art Pt catalysts and recent advances in development of Fe, Co and Ni-catalysts for olefin hydrosilylation is given. The applications, mechanisms and remaining challenges of transition-metal-catalyzed hydrosilylation are discussed. In the chapter 2, chemoselective anti-Markovnikov hydrosilylation of functionalized alkenes using well-defined bis(amino)amide nickel pincer complexes is described. The catalysts exhibit both high turnover frequencies and turnover numbers. Alkenes containing amino, ester, amido, ketone, and formyl groups are selectively hydrosilylated with Ph2SiH2. Chemoselective hydrosilylation of carbon-carbon double bond in the presence of formyl group using a base metal catalyst is reported for the first time. A modification of reaction conditions allows tandem isomerization-hydrosilylation reactions of internal alkenes to give terminal alkyl silanes. Hydrosilylation of alkenes with tertiary silanes is more attractive from practical point of view. The screening of various nickel alkoxide complexes with reduced steric bulk led us to discovery of an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for alkene hydrosilylation with commercially relevant tertiary silanes (chapter 3). The catalyst exhibits high activity in anti-Markovnikov hydrosilylation of unactivated terminal alkenes and isomerizing hydrosilylation of internal alkenes. The catalyst can be applied to synthesize a single terminal alkyl silane from a mixture of internal and terminal alkene isomers. Furthermore, the same catalyst can be used to remotely functionalize an internal alkene derived from a fatty acid. Chapter 4 describes a catalytic system composed of a nickel amido(bisoxazoline) complex and NaOtBu for an unexpected synthetic transformation, leading to the synthesis of functionalized alkyl hydrosilanes from readily available alkenes and alkoxysilanes. This method provides a convenient and safe alternative to hydrosilylation using flammmable and potentially dangerous Me2SiH2, MeSiH3 and SiH4. The reaction mechanism was also described. Efficient and atom-economical creation of C-N bond is one of the major tasks in synthetic organic chemistry. Direct C-H amination has emerged as an attractive method for the construction of new C-N bonds. In the chapter 5 a new transition-metal free method for the intermolecular amination of the alpha-C-H bonds of ethers is described. Using a hypervalent iodine reagent as oxidant the amination of cyclic and acyclic alkyl ethers with a wide range of amides, imides, and amines was achieved. The utility of this method was demonstrated in the synthesis of Tegafur and its analogues. This transition-metal-free method provides a rapid access to a large number of nitrogen-containing organic molecules that may serve as useful synthetic intermediates or biologically active agents.

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