Infoscience

Journal article

Key Energy and Technological Aspects of Three Innovative Concepts of District Energy Networks

Energy needs in urban areas are heterogeneous by their nature, spatial distribution and temperature level required. Three concepts of district energy networks that could provide the energy services efficiently to a city centre are compared. The focus is on the energy and technological aspects. These networks are characterized by similar temperature levels; between 9.5 °C and 18 °C, rely on free cooling for most of the cooling services and use a combination of centralized and decentralized heat pumps to provide the heating services. Two of these concepts exploit the latent heat of evaporation/condensation of CO2 and of the refrigerant R1234yf to store and transfer heat. The third concept is more conventional and uses the sensible heat of liquid water, however with a small temperature spread. The proposed networks allow the waste heat emitted by the users requiring cooling to be transferred and valourised by the users requiring heating, thus reducing the load on the central plant. For the area considered, where the annual heating and cooling demand are 53.1 GWh and 49.4 GWh respectively, the annual electricity required to supply the thermal services amounts to 10.87 GWh for CO2, 10.52 GWh for water and 9.60 GWh for R1234yf. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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