Fault Detection and Faulted Line Identification in Active Distribution Networks Using Synchrophasors-based Real-Time State Estimation
We intend to prove that PMU-based state estimation processes for active distribution networks exhibit unique time determinism and refresh rate that make them suitable to satisfy the time-critical requirements of protections as well as the accuracy requirements dictated by faulted line identification. In this respect, we propose a real-time fault detection and faulted line identification functionality obtained by computing parallel synchrophasor-based state estimators. Each state estimator is characterized by a different and augmented topology in order to include a floating fault bus. The selection of the state estimator providing the correct solution is done by a metric that computes the sum of the weighted measurement residuals. The proposed process scheme is validated by means of a real-time simulation platform in which an existing active distribution network is simulated together with a PMU-based monitoring system. The proposed process is shown to be suitable for active and passive networks, with solid-earthed and unearthed neutral, for low and high impedance faults of any kind (symmetric and asymmetric) occurring at different locations.