Energy scenarios in urban renewal processes: a GIS-based approach to analyse the urban-scale installation of photovoltaics. Case study of two neighborhoods in Neuchâtel
With the “Energy Strategy 2050”, Switzerland is planning to gradually withdraw from the use of nuclear energy and consequently integrate a larger share of renewables sources. Among all types of renewable sources, photovoltaic systems are ideally suited for energy supply in urban structures. This thesis defines the potential of the roof-based photovoltaics for different energy scenarios in urban areas generated in the Geographical Information System (GIS). To evaluate this potential, the technical aspects like solar irradiation potential and available roof areas are combined with the analysis of the urban morphology. The latter consists of the urban context and system visibility analyses on the one hand and the social aspects analysis of photovoltaic installation on the other hand. The methodology is applied in two neighborhoods in the city of Neuchâtel presenting different urban morphologies. Each neighborhood has been evaluated by the help of the models defined in GIS. For each building, the models evaluate the solar energy potential, the available roof surface, the visibility level as well as the sensitivity level. Thereafter, based on these analyses two sets of energy scenarios are presented for each neighborhood. Despite the limits mainly related to the social analysis, caused by the limited number of respondents, the presented methodology can be used as a decision support tool providing the decision makers with important information about the level of photovoltaic integration based on the morphological or social aspects of the urban area. In other words, it gives the decision makers the possibility to choose the scenario definition method based on both their territory context and their needs for producing energy.