We have targeted the Mycobacterium tuberculosis decaprenylphosphoryl-beta-D-ribose oxidase (Mt-DprE1) for potential chemotherapeutic intervention of tuberculosis. A multicopy suppression strategy that overexpressed Mt-DprEl in M. bovis BCG was used to profile the publically available GlaxoSmithKline antimycobacterial compound set, and one compound (GSK710) was identified that showed an 8-fold higher minimum inhibitory concentration relative to the control strain. Analogues of GSK710 show a clear relationship between whole cell potency and in vitro activity using an enzymatic assay employing recombinant Mt-DprE1, with binding affinity measured by fluorescence quenching of the flavin cofactor of the enzyme. M. bovis BCG spontaneous resistant mutants to GSK710 and a closely related analogue were isolated and sequencing of ten such mutants revealed a single point mutation at two sites, E221Q or G248S within DprE1, providing further evidence that DprEl is the main target of these compounds. Finally, time-lapse microscopy experiments showed that exposure of M. tuberculosis to a compound of this series arrests bacterial growth rapidly followed by a slower cytolysis phase.