Status of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System
The electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H&CD;) system developed for the ITER is made of 12 sets of high-voltage power supplies feeding 24 gyrotrons connected through 24 transmission lines (TL), to five launchers, four located in upper ports and one at the equatorial level. Nearly all procurements are in-kind, following general ITER philosophy, and will come from Europe, India, Japan, Russia and the USA. The full system is designed to couple to the plasma 20 MW among the 24 MW generated power, at the frequency of 170 GHz, for various physics applications such as plasma start-up, central H&CD; and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity control. The design takes present day technology and extends toward high-power continuous operation, which represents a large step forward as compared to the present state of the art. The ITER EC system will be a stepping stone to future EC systems for DEMO and beyond. The development of the EC system is facing significant challenges, which includes not only an advanced microwave system but also compliance with stringent requirements associated with nuclear safety as ITER became the first fusion device licensed as basic nuclear installations as of 9 November 2012. Since the conceptual design of the EC system was established in 2007, the EC system has progressed to a preliminary design stage in 2012 and is now moving forward toward a final design.