Adaptation and coaching of periodic motion primitives through physical and visual interaction: B
In this paper we propose and evaluate a control system to (1) learn and (2) adapt robot motion for continuous non-rigid contact with the environment. We present the approach in the context of wiping surfaces with robots. Our approach is based on learning by demonstration. First an initial periodic motion, covering the essence of the wiping task, is transferred from a human to a robot. The system extracts and learns one period of motion. Once the user/demonstrator is content with the motion, the robot seeks and establishes contact with a given surface, maintaining a predefined force of contact through force feedback. The shape of the surface is encoded for the complete period of motion, but the robot can adapt to a different surface, perturbations or obstacles. The novelty stems from the fact that the feedforward component is learned and encoded in a dynamic movement primitive. By using the feedforward component, the feedback component is greatly reduced if not completely canceled. Finally, if the user is not satisfied with the periodic pattern, he/she can change parts of motion through predefined gestures or through physical contact in a manner of a tutor or a coach. The complete system thus allows not only a transfer of motion, but a transfer of motion with matching correspondences, i.e. wiping motion is constrained to maintain physical contact with the surface to be wiped. The interface for both learning and adaptation is simple and intuitive and allows for fast and reliable knowledge transfer to the robot. Simulated and real world results in the application domain of wiping a surface are presented on three different robotic platforms. Results of the three robotic platforms, namely a 7 degree-of-freedom Kuka LWR-4 robot, the ARMAR-IIIa humanoid platform and the Sarcos CB-i humanoid robot, depict different methods of adaptation to the environment and coaching. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.