Trapped-Electron Runaway Effect
In a tokamak, trapped electrons subject to a strong electric field cannot run away immediately, because their parallel velocity does not increase over a bounce period. However, they do pinch toward the tokamak center. As they pinch toward the center, the trapping cone becomes more narrow, so eventually they can be detrapped and run away. When they run away, trapped electrons will have a very different signature from circulating electrons subject to the Dreicer mechanism. The characteristics of what are called trapped-electron runaways are identified and quantified, including their distinguishable perpendicular velocity spectrum and radial extent.