Infoscience

Journal article

Immune reactivity of diabetes-associated human monoclonal autoantibodies defines multiple epitopes and detects two domain boundaries in glutamate decarboxylase

Autoreactive islet cell Abs (ICA) accompany the pathogenic destruction of pancreatic beta cells in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Human monoclonal ICA (MICA 1-6), previously derived from a DR1/DR7-positive newly diagnosed diabetic patient, recognized the islet cell autoantigen glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and defined two distinct conformational (MICA 1/3 and MICA 4/6) and one linear (MICA 2) autoimmune epitopes in this molecule. We have isolated 4 new ICA-reactive B cell lines, one from a DR4/DR11-positive newly diagnosed IDDM patient (MICA 7) and three from a DR3 homozygous patient with both IDDM and Graves' disease (MICA 8-10). Like MICA 1-6, MICA 7-10 are specific for GAD65, suggesting that GAD65-reactive B cells dominate the ICA response in IDDM. Comparative analysis of MICA 1-6 and MICA 7-10, using GAD65 mutants and blocking experiments, showed that MICA 7-10 define three novel conformational autoimmune epitopes in GAD65. Further structural analysis of the MICA 1-10 epitopes revealed two distinct and one overlapping region of epitope clusters. Thus, the C-terminal region, defined by amino acids 450 to 570, harbors the conformational MICA1/3 and MICA 7 epitopes as well as the linear epitope of MICA 2 (amino acids 506-531). The MICA 4/6 and MICA 10 epitopes are located in the middle region of the molecule defined by amino acids 245 to 449, whereas the N-terminal region contributes only to the MICA 8/9 epitopes (encompassed in amino acids 39-585). MICA 1-6, 7, and 8-10, derived from three IDDM patients of different HLA haplotypes, define six different epitopes in GAD65 and represent tools to determine the spectrum, possible HLA association, and temporal order of epitope recognition in IDDM.

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