Journal article

Isolation and Characterization of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase

Production of human monoclonal autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase Mr 65,000 (GAD65), characterization of their isotype, binding affinity, V region sequences and competition with autoantibodies in patients' sera is described. Lymphocytes from a patient with Addison's disease who had GAD65 autoantibodies without diabetes were immortalised and fused to a mouse/human hybridoma. In addition, mouse monoclonal antibodies to GAD65 were produced using standard techniques. F(ab')2s from our monoclonals and the GAD6 mouse monoclonal were used in competition with intact monoclonals and sera from diabetic patients for binding to 125I-labelled GAD65 (amino acids 46-586). Reactivities of the human monoclonals with GAD 65,000/67,000 Mr chimeras were also studied. Variable region genes of human monoclonals were sequenced and analysed. The human monoclonals (n = 3) had affinity constants for GAD65 of 2.2 2 109, 5.8 2 109, 1.3 2 1010 mol/lm 1; affinities of the mouse monoclonals (n = 5) ranged from 1.1 2 108 to 5.4 2 1010 mol/lm 1. The binding of each of the human monoclonals was inhibited by GAD6 F(ab')2 and the binding of GAD6 antibody was inhibited by the human monoclonal F(ab')2s suggesting that the epitopes for these antibodies were overlapping. Studies with GAD65/GAD67 chimeras indicated that the human monoclonals reacted with C-terminal epitopes. The human monoclonals, GAD6 and 3/5 mouse monoclonals inhibited serum autoantibody binding to 125I-labelled GAD65. Overall, the human monoclonals were of high affinity, reacted with C-terminal epitopes and showed evidence of antigen driven maturation; they represented only a proportion of the repertoire of autoantibodies to GAD65 in the donor's serum and in the sera of patients with type-1 diabetes.


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