Rational design of triazatruxene-based hole conductors for perovskite solar cells
Triazatruxene core based hole transporting materials (HTMs), HMDI (5,10,15-trihexyl-3,8,13-trimethoxy-10,15-dihydro-5H-diindolo[3,2-a: 3',2'-c]carbazole) and HPDI (5,10,15-tris(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-10,15-dihydro-5H-diindolo[3,2-a: 3',2'-c]carbazole) were synthesized and exploited in perovskite based solar cells. The energy levels of star-shaped HMDI and HPDI were tuned by symmetrically introducing electron-rich alkoxy side groups. These soluble and easily synthesized materials exhibit optical transparency in the visible region, high thermal stability and have suitable HOMO values with respect to perovskite, making them an ideal HTM candidate for efficient perovskite solar cells. The HPDI molecule-based devices gave competitive power conversion efficiencies of similar to 11% under AM 1.5G illumination. The facile synthetic approach using inexpensive precursor materials will facilitate triazatruxene-based molecules to be further exploited in thin film organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells and needs optimization to enhance power conversion efficiency.