Combination of UV absorbance and electron donating capacity to assess degradation of micropollutants and formation of bromate during ozonation of wastewater effluents
In this study, the changes in UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)) and electron donating capacity (EDC) were investigated as surrogate indicators for assessing removal of micropollutants and bromate formation during ozonation of wastewater effluents. To measure the EDC, a novel method based on size exclusion chromatography followed by a post-column reaction was developed and calibrated against an existing electrochemical method. Low specific ozone doses led to a more efficient abatement of EDC than of UVA(254). This was attributed to the abatement of phenolic moieties in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), which lose their EDC upon oxidation, but are partially transformed into quinones, which still absorb in the measured UV range. For higher specific ozone doses, the relative EDC abatement was lower than the relative UVA abatement, which can be explained by the oxidation of UV absorbing moieties (e.g. non-activated aromatic compounds), which contribute less to EDC. The abatement of the selected micropollutants (i.e., 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), carbamazepine (CBZ), atenolol (ATE), bezafibrate (BZF), ibuprofen (IBU), and p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) varied significantly depending on their reactivity with ozone in the examined specific ozone dose range of 0-1.45 mgO(3)/mgDOC. The decrease of EE2 and CBZ with high ozone reactivity was linearly proportional to the reduction of the relative residuals of UVA254 and EDC. The abatement of ATE, BZF, IBU, and pCBA with intermediate to low ozone reactivities was not significant in a first phase (UVA(254)/UVA(254,0) = 1.00-0.70; EDC/EDC0 = 1.00-0.56) while their abatement was more efficient than the degradation of the relative residual UVA(254) and much more noticeable than the degradation of the relative residual EDC in a second phase (UVA(254)/UVA(254,0) = 0.70-0.25; EDC/EDC0 = 0.56-0.25) because the partially destroyed UV absorbing and electron donating DOM moieties become recalcitrant to ozone attack. Bromate formation was pronounced for specific ozone doses >0.25 mgO(3)/mgDOC. At these ozone doses, the residual DOM competes less with bromide for ozone as the electron-rich DOM moieties are almost completely degraded. Overall, these results imply that a combination of the relative residual UVA(254) and EDC more truly reflects the intrinsic reactivity of DOM associated with the removal of micropollutants and bromate formation than the single use of the UV absorbance-based surrogate indicators. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.