Improved electrode

The present invention provides a generic electrode for photovoltaics, water splitting cells or any electro-chemical device where a three-dimensional transparent conductive backbone provides efficient charge extraction and can support an active guest material for light harvesting or electro-chemical reaction. Enhanced light harvesting is provided through scattering or through photonic crystal effects from the disordered or ordered three-dimensional structure, respectively. Enhanced charge collection is provided by the conductive/transparent conductive tri-dimensional backbone forming a matrix in which the active material can be intercalated. Enhanced light harvesting, charge extraction and thus improved photocurrent and efficiency are possible with this method.


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