Dye-sensitized solar cells employing a SnO2-TiO2 core-shell structure made by atomic layer deposition
This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of core-shell structures, based on SnO2 and TiO2, for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). Atomic layer deposition is employed to control and vary the thickness of the TiO2 shell. Increasing the TiO2 shell thickness to 2 nm improved the device performance of liq. electrolyte-based DSC from 0.7% to 3.5%. The increase in efficiency originates from a higher open-circuit potential and a higher short-circuit current, as well as from an improvement in the electron lifetime. SnO2-TiO2 core-shell DSC devices retain their photovoltage in darkness for longer than 500 s, demonstrating that the electrons are contained in the core material. Finally core-shell structures were used for solid-state DSC applications using the hole transporting material 2,2',7,7',-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9',-spirofluorene. Similar improvements in device performance were obtained for solid-state DSC devices.