Characterization of the Interface Properties and Processes in Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing a Perylene Sensitizer
A perylene sensitizer, ID176, was recently reported which performs much better in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells than in those using liq. electrolytes with iodide/tri-iodide as the redox couple. Here, a characterization is presented of the sensitizer and of the TiO2/dye interface by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, spectroelectrochem., photoelectron spectroscopy, electroabsorption spectroscopy, photoinduced absorption spectroscopy, and femtosecond transient absorption measurements. The absorption spectrum is reported of the sensitizer red-shifted by addn. of lithium ions to the surface due to a downward shift of the excited state level of the sensitizer, which is of the same order of magnitude as the downward shift of the titanium dioxide conduction band edge. Results from photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochem. suggest that the excited state is largely located below the conduction band edge of TiO2 but that there are states in the band gap of TiO2 which might be available for photoinduced electron injection. The sensitizer was able to efficiently inject into TiO2, when a lithium salt was present on the surface, while injection was much less effective in the absence of lithium ions or in the presence of solvent. In the presence of the hole conductor 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) and LiTFSI, charge sepn. was monitored by the emergence of a Stark shift of the dye in transient absorption spectra, and both injection and regeneration appear to be completed within 1 ps. Regeneration by spiro-MeOTAD is therefore several orders of magnitude faster than regeneration by iodide, and ID176 can even be photoreduced by spiro-MeOTAD.
Record created on 2015-07-06, modified on 2016-09-28