A wind-tunnel investigation of wind-turbine wakes in yawed conditions
Wind-tunnel experiments were performed to study the performance of a model wind turbine and its wake characteristics in a boundary layer under different operating conditions, including different yaw angles and tip speed ratios. High-resolution particle image-velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the three velocity components in a horizontal plane at hub height covering a broad streamwise range from upstream of the turbine to the far-wake region. Additionally, thrust and power coefficients of the turbine were measured under different conditions. These power and thrust measurements, together with the highly-resolved ow measurements, enabled us to systematically study different wake properties. The near-wake region is found to have a highly complex structure influenced by different factors such as tip speed ratio and wake rotation. In particular, for higher tip speed ratios, a noticeable speed-up region is observed in the central part of near wake, which greatly affects the flow distribution in this region. In this regard, the behavior of the near wake for turbines with similar thrust coefficients but different tip speed ratios can vary widely. In contrast, it is shown that the mean streamwise velocity in the far wake of the turbine with zero yaw angle has a self-similar Gaussian distribution, and the strength of wake in this region is consistent with the magnitude of the thrust coefficient. With increasing yaw angle, as expected, the power and thrust coefficients decrease, and the wake deflection increases. The measurements also reveal that, in addition to turbulent momentum flux, lateral mean momentum flux boosts the flow entrainment in only one side of the wake, which results in a faster wake recovery in that side. It is also found that the induced velocity upstream of a yawed turbine has a non-symmetric distribution, and its distribution is in agreement with the available model in the literature. Moreover, the results suggest that in order to accurately predict the load distribution in yawed conditions, both normal and tangential (with respect to the rotor plane) components of the induced velocity upstream of the turbine should be taken into account.