Cytotoxicity evaluation of polymer-derived ceramics for pacemaker electrode applications
Ceramics are known to be chemically stable, and the possibility to electrically dope polymer-derived ceramics makes it a material of interest for implantable electrodes applications. We investigated cytotoxic characteristics of four polymer-derived ceramic candidates with either electrically conductive or insulating properties. Cytotoxicity was assessed by culturing C2C12 myoblast cells under two conditions: by exposing them to material extracts and by putting them directly in contact with material samples. Cell spreading was optically evaluated by comparing microscope observations immediately after the materials insertion and after 24 hours culturing. Cell viability (MTT), respectively mortality (LDH), was quantified after 24 hours incubation in contact with the materials. Comparison was made with biocompatible positive references (alumina, platinum, biocompatible stainless steel 1.4435), negative references (latex, stainless steel 1.4301) and controls (no material present in the culture wells). We found that the cytotoxic properties of tested ceramics are comparable to established reference materials. These ceramics, which are reported to be very stable, can be micro-structured and electrically doped to a wide range of conductivity and are thus excellent candidates for implantable electrode applications including pacemakers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.