Total Syntheses of (−)-Mersicarpine, (−)-Scholarisine G, (+)-Melodinine E, (−)-Leuconoxine, (−)-Leuconolam, (−)-Leuconodine A, (+)-Leuconodine F, and (−)-Leuconodine C: Self-Induced Diastereomeric Anisochronism (SIDA) Phenomenon for Scholarisine G and Leuconodines A and C
Enantioselective total syntheses of title natural products from a common cyclohexenone derivative (S)-18 were reported. Ozonolysis of (S)-18 afforded a stable diketo ester (R)-17 that was subsequently converted to two skeletally different natural products, i.e., (−)-mersicarpine (8) with a [220.127.116.11] fused tetracyclic ring system and (−)-scholarisine G (9) with a [18.104.22.168.5] fused pentacyclic skeleton, respectively. The postcyclization diversification was realized by taking advantage of the facile conversion of (+)-melodinine E (6) to N-acyliminium ion 7, from which a hydroxy group was selectively introduced to the C6, C7, C10 and the central C21 position of diazafenestrane system, leading to (−)-leuconodine A (11), (+)-leuconodine F (12), (−)-scholarisine G (9), (−)-leuconodine C (13), and skeletally different (−)-leuconolam (5). Furthermore, an unprecedented non-natural oxabridged oxadiazafenestrane 68 was formed by oxidation of (+)-melodinine E (6). During the course of this study, a strong self-induced diastereomeric anisochronism (SIDA) phenomenon was observed for scholarisine G (9), leuconodines A (11) and C (13). X-ray structures of both the racemic and the enantiopure natural products 9, 11, and 13 were obtained. The different crystal packing of these two forms nicely explained the chemical shift differences observed in the 1H NMR spectra of the racemic and the enantio-enriched compounds in an achiral environment.