Journal article

Importance of a three-dimensional measure of humeral head subluxation in osteoarthritic shoulders

Hypothesis: During total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), humeral head subluxation may be difficult to manage. Furthermore, there is a risk for postoperative recurrence of subluxation, affecting the outcome of TSA. An accurate evaluation of the subluxation is necessary to evaluate this risk. Currently, subluxation is measured in 2 dimensions (2D), usually relative to the glenoid face. The goal of this study was to extend this measure to 3 dimensions (3D) to compare glenohumeral and scapulohumeral subluxation and to evaluate the association of subluxation with the glenoid version. Materials and methods: The study analyzed 112 computed tomography scans of osteoarthritic shoulders. We extended the usual 2D definition of glenohumeral subluxation, scapulohumeral subluxation, and glenoid version by measuring their orientation in 3D relative to the scapular plane and the scapular axis. We evaluated statistical associations between subluxation and version in 2D and 3D. Results: Orientation of subluxation and version covered all sectors of the glenoid surface. Scapulohumeral subluxation and glenoid version were highly correlated in amplitude (R-2 = 0.71; P <. 01) and in orientation (R-2 = 0.86; P <. 01). Approximately every degree of glenoid version induced 1% of scapulohumeral subluxation in the same orientation of the version. Conversely, glenohumeral subluxation was not correlated to glenoid version in 2D or in 3D. Conclusions: Orientation of the humeral subluxation is rarely within the arbitrary computed tomography plane and should therefore be measured in 3D to detect out-of-plane subluxation. Scapulohumeral subluxation and glenoid version measured in 3D could bring valuable information for decision making during TSA. (C)

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