IIIV photonics on silicon is an active and promising research area. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature (RT) lasing in short-wavelength III-nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities grown on silicon featuring a single InGaN quantum well (QW). In the low-absorption QW region, high quality factors in excess of 104 are measured, while RT blue lasing under continuous-wave optical pumping is reported in the high-absorption wavelength range, hence the high QW gain region. Lasing characteristics are well accounted for by the large spontaneous emission coupling factor (beta > 0.8) inherent to the nanobeam geometry and the large InGaN QW material gain. Our work illustrates the high potential of III-nitrides on silicon for the realization of low power nanophotonic devices with a reduced footprint that would be of prime interest for fundamental lightmatter interaction studies and a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications including biophotonics.