Raman Spectroscopy of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites
Micro-Raman spectroscopy provides laterally resolved microstructural information for a broad range of materials. In this Letter, we apply this technique to tri-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), tribromide (CH3NH3PbBr3), and mixed iodide-bromide (CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx) organic-inorganic halide perovskite thin films and discuss necessary conditions to obtain reliable data. We explain how to measure Raman spectra of pristine CH3NH3PbI3 layers and discuss the distinct Raman bands that develop during moisture-induced degradation. We also prove unambiguously that the final degradation products contain pure PbI2. Moreover, we describe CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx Raman spectra and discuss how the perovskite crystallographic symmetries affect the Raman band intensities and spectral shapes. On the basis of the dependence of the Raman shift on the iodide-to-bromide ratio, we show that Raman spectroscopy is a fast and nondestructive method for the evaluation of the relative iodide-to-bromide ratio.