We demonstrate opto-spintronics using Fe-doped Indium Phosphide (InP). The method is based on optical orientation of InP conduction electron spins which are electrically detected in planar InP/oxide/Ni tunnel spin filters. We separate the optical excitation from electrical detection, avoiding thus additional interactions of photons with the ferromagnet. Interface engineering provides a surface iron accumulation and semiconducting Fe:In2O3 in the oxide tunnel barrier. The spin filtering effect switches to positive or negative asymmetry, depending on the Fe concentration in Fe-x:InP. With respect to the Fe-like electronic structure of these oxides, we can explain the opposite spin selection mechanisms as interface effects. In the temperature region where the InP mobility peaks, we find a maximum of spin-dependent asymmetry of similar to 9% in semi-insulating Fe: InP (001), and show the electrical spin detection in hyperpolarized InP also at room temperature. Such robust electronic spin detection in an InP nanodevice is planned to complement dynamic nuclear polarization experiments.