Within the UNESCO Recommendation of 2011, the historic urban landscape is defined as: “The urban area understood as the result of a historic layering of cultural and natural values and attributes, extending beyond the notion of “historic center” or “ensemble” to include the broader urban context and its geographical setting. This wider context includes notably the site’s topography, geomorphology, hydrology and natural features, its built environment, both historic and contemporary, its infrastructures above and below ground, its open spaces and gardens, its land use patterns and spatial organization, perceptions and visual relationships, as well as all other elements of the urban structure. It also includes social and cultural practices and values, economic processes and the intangible dimensions of heritage as related to diversity and identity.” During the session dedicated to the theoretical framework, we explored the background of this concept since the idea of ‘historical monument’, that was developed in the mid-nineteenth century and which was considered as the basis of the modern view of cultural heritage until the 2003 Convention on intangible heritage. Subsequently, we discussed the new approaches that have been developed around the concept of historic urban landscape, such as sustainability, the management of change, historic continuity and connectivity. Finally, we opened the debate on the relevance of this concept for the analysis of our various case studies.