The scope of this review is to highlight the application of polymer therapeutics in an effort to curb the transmission and infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following a description of the HIV life cycle, the use of approved antiretroviral drugs that inhibit critical steps in the HIV infection process is highlighted. After that, a comprehensive overview of the structure and inhibitory properties of polymeric anti-HIV therapeutic agents is presented. This overview will include inhibitors based on polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, polymer conjugates as well as polymeric DC-SIGN antagonists. The review will conclude with a section that discusses the applications of polymers and polymer conjugates as systemic and topical anti-HIV therapeutics.