Infoscience

Thesis

Optical microscopy for imaging through scattering media

Optical microscopy has been widely used in the life sciences and biological research for several decades. It possesses many advantages over x-ray radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging, in terms of being low cost, high resolution, harmless and capable of multiple contrast mechanism, etc. However, the weakness of optical microscopy is the inability to perform deep tissue imaging. Owing to the short wavelength of optical waves, it experiences much more scattering than longer waves in inhomogeneous materials such as biological tissues. Scattering scrambles the wavefront and limits the penetration depth of optical microscopy to only hundreds of microns. We explore in this thesis, novel optical approaches to image through scattering media. There are two main categories of the state of art techniques: imaging with ballistic photons, which requires separation of ballistic photons from the sneak or multiple scattered ones; and imaging with scattered photons, which relies on manipulation of the scattered photons according to the specific scattering properties. We primarily focus on the second category in this thesis. Taking advantage of the reversibility of light, phase conjugation has a long history in aberration compensation. A deterministic wave is incident on a scattering medium and results in a random scattered field. If we record the full information of the scattered field (amplitude and phase) and generate a phase conjugated replica of it, the phase conjugated wave can follow the same path and reconstruct the original deterministic wave after passing back through the scattering medium. In this work, phase conjugation is achieved using digital method, called digital phase conjugation. The scattered field is recorded through digital holography, and a spatial light modulator is applied to construct the phase conjugated wave. Second harmonic radiation imaging probes are used as the original light source, rendering the generation of a focus behind the scattering medium. The memory effect, which indicates the correlation between speckles with different incident angles, is exploited to move the focus around and obtain three-dimensional scanning microscopy behind scattering medium. Speckle scanning microscopy is the second method demonstrated in this thesis for imaging through turbid media. In contrast to digital phase conjugation, which requires access from both sides of the scatterers to measure the scattered field, in speckle scanning microscopy, excitation and collection can be achieved from the same side. The specific scattering events are not taken into account, instead, the statistic property of the scatterers plays a major role. This technique makes full use of two facts: 1. The statistically averaged autocorrelation of speckle fields approaches a delta function; 2. When a speckle pattern scans across a fluorescence object, the collected fluorescence intensity is proportional to the convolution of the speckle field and the object. Linking these two facts with delicate calculation, we can eventually minimize the influence of the speckle, and reconstruct two-dimensional images of objects behind turbid medium. Encouraged by the success of two-dimensional speckle scanning microscopy, we investigate more advanced possibilities by simulation, including three-dimensional speckle scanning and reference based speckle scanning techniques. [...]

Fulltext

Related material