Infoscience

Thesis

Magnetic states and spin-wave modes in single ferromagnetic nanotubes

In this thesis the electrical properties, magnetic states and spin wave resonances of individual magnetically hollow ferromagnetic nanotubes have been studied. They were prepared from the different materials Nickel (Ni), Permalloy (Py) and Cobalt-Iron-Boron (CoFeB), deposited as shells onto non-magnetic Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor nanowires via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), thermal evaporation and magnetron sputtering, respectively. The resulting nanotubes had lengths between 10 to 20 μm, diameters of 150 to 400 nm and tube walls (shells) which were 20 to 40nm thick. Structural analysis of the tubes by Transmission Electron Microscopy revealed a poly(nano)crystalline (Ni, Py) and amorphous (CoFeB) structure. Electrical transport experiments as a function of temperature revealed different transport mechanisms for each of the materials. Electron-phonon scattering dominated the temperature dependence of the resistivity in Ni, while a clear evidence for electron magnon scattering was observed in Py. Electron-electron interaction in granular and amorphous media was identified as the major contribution to the temperature dependence in CoFeB. The Anisotropic Magnetoresistance (AMR) ratios have been determined for all tubes and different temperatures. Ni nanotubes exhibited a large relative AMR effect of 1.4% at room temperature. The AMR measurements provided information about the magnetic configurations as well as the magnetization reversal mechanism. Indications for the formation of vortex segments in Ni tubes were found for the magnetization reversal when the magnetic field was perpendicular to the nanotube axis. In cooperation with the Poggio group in Basel, cantilever magnetometry has been used for the further characterization of the nanotube magnetization. The magnetization curves were compared to the AMR measurements and finite element method (FEM) micromagnetic simulations. The comparison between the experimental results and the simulations suggested that the roughness of Ni tubes gave rise to segmented magnetic switching. An almost perfect axial alignment of the remanent magnetization has been observed in Py and CoFeB nanotubes. The influence of the inhomogeneous internal field in transverse magnetic fields was investigated by simulation. The segment-wise alignment of spins with the field direction is argued to provoke characteristic kinks in the hysteresis curve and measured AMR effect. Magnetothermal spatial mapping experiments using the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) complemented the magnetotransport experiments in cooperation with the group of Prof. Grundler in Munich. Here, first evidence of end-vortices entering the nanotube before reversal could be found. Electrically detected spin wave resonance experiments have been performed in cooperation with the group of Prof. Grundler on individual nanotubes. The detected voltage, generated by the spin rectification effect, revealed multiple resonances in the GHz frequency. The experimentally observed resonances were compared to calculated ones extracted from dynamic simulations. With this comparison, the signatures could be attributed to azimuthally confined spin-wave modes. The deduced dispersion relation suggested the quantization of exchange dominated spin waves in that resonance frequencies follow roughly a quadratic dependence on the wave vector.

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