Coupling Movement Primitives: Interaction With the Environment and Bimanual Tasks
The framework of dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) contains many favorable properties for the execution of robotic trajectories, such as indirect dependence on time, response to perturbations, and the ability to easily modulate the given trajectories, but the framework in its original form remains constrained to the kinematic aspect of the movement. In this paper, we bridge the gap to dynamic behavior by extending the framework with force/torque feedback. We propose and evaluate a modulation approach that allows interaction with objects and the environment. Through the proposed coupling of originally independent robotic trajectories, the approach also enables the execution of bimanual and tightly coupled cooperative tasks. We apply an iterative learning control algorithm to learn a coupling term, which is applied to the original trajectory in a feed-forward fashion and, thus, modifies the trajectory in accordance to the desired positions or external forces. A stability analysis and results of simulated and real-world experiments using two KUKA LWR arms for bimanual tasks and interaction with the environment are presented. By expanding on the framework of DMPs, we keep all the favorable properties, which is demonstrated with temporal modulation and in a two-agent obstacle avoidance task.