Design of a bed load and driftwood filtering dam, analysis of the phenomena and hydraulic design
Flood protection often calls on to the realization of retention works for bed load as well as wood and debris flow. Certain relatively recent arrangements did not perform according to their intended function, what shows the complexity of the design and the implementation of such works. Adaptations were necessary to reach the security objectives. The design of a retention dam for solid materials and floating driftwood requires the consideration of numerous hydraulic and material transport processes. The analyses and design validation can be made with two approaches: physical modelling by the construction of a reduced scale model and the test realization or numerical simulation, by means of software packages such as GESMAT (1D) or TOPOFLOW (2D). The present work consists in implementing both approaches, in estimating and in comparing the answers which could be given for a bed load and debris flow filtering dam on a river with a slope of the order of 10%. Thanks to water level gauges and visual observations during tests on the physical model, the progression of the obstructions by driftwood and bed load is well understood, and the effectiveness of these obstructions proven. The tested work plays at first a role of filtering and retention and secondly a role of side overflow towards a zone with low damage potential, when the capacity of the in-stream retention space is reached. The performed numerical simulations, essentially in 1D, reproduce well the phenomena of bed load aggradation. Moreover, the potential obstruction by floating wood is considered and influences the behavior of the structure. By putting in parallel physical and numerical models, it was possible thanks to the results from the physical scale model to refine the numerical simulation tools taking into consideration additional components and behavior-type rules. These further established rules can now be used for other cases where physical modelling is not foreseen.