3D Turbulence Measurements Using Three Synchronous Wind Lidars: Validation against Sonic Anemometry
This paper presents a technique to measure the time series of the three components of the wind vector at a point in space from synchronous measurements of three scanning Doppler wind lidars. Knowing the position of each lidar on the ground and the orientation of each laser beam allows for reconstructing the three components of the wind velocity vector. The laser beams must intersect at the desired point in space and their directions must be noncoplanar, so that trigonometric relationships allow the reconstruction of the velocity vector in any coordinate system. This technique has been tested during a measurement campaign carried out at Cabauw's Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and compared against measurements from sonic anemometers installed in a meteorological mast. The spatial resolutions of both measurement techniques differ by one order of magnitude. Therefore, in order to properly compare the results, a pseudospatial filter that mimics the attenuation induced by the lidar technology at small scales of turbulence has been applied to the velocity time series provided by the sonic anemometer. Good agreement between both measurement systems is found in terms of the measured instantaneous velocity vector, turbulence statistics, Reynolds stresses, and the spectra of the three components of the velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy. These results provide a successful validation of the proposed technique.