Head losses in junction manholes for free surface flows in circular conduits
Former studies on combining flows resulted in an efficient layout of sewer junctions operated under supercritical approach flow conditions. Straight extensions allowed a reduction in the shock wave heights generated by the merging flows, so that the global discharge capacity was significantly increased. Herein, an extensive experimental campaign is presented on a physical model with the aforementioned layout, although with generalized geometrical conditions now including various conduit diameters. The effects of the main parameters governing the energy losses for combining flows were ascertained to enhance the information available from the literature. The results and their analysis provide a basis for the prediction of energy losses at junction manholes with different upstream and lateral conduit diameters and various flow conditions.