Current interest in capitalizing on scientific diasporas’ knowledge and networks to the advantage of developing countries has become more pronounced given the escalation in international skilled migration and the realization of the potential benefits to home countries from human capital abroad. This paper provides an overview of the experiences that a selection of countries have followed to engage emigrated scientists and skilled professionals into their development processes. Scientific collaborations, joint publications, temporary visits, and academic exchanges are ways in which scientific diasporas’ knowledge can be channelled to their homelands. By describing the specific conditions and environments that enable or hinder the implementation of concrete initiatives and policies, this paper discusses main determinants ensuring thriving positive linkages which can contribute to strengthening national science and technology systems. It stands out that enabling structural settings and supportive policies together with a welcoming environment provided by local society are required.