Back-Contacted Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Efficiency >21%
We report on the fabrication of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells with conversion efficiencies above 21%. Our process technology relies solely on simple and size-scalable patterning methods, with no high-temperature steps. Using in situ shadow masks, doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers are patterned into two interdigitated combs. Transparent conductive oxide and metal layers, forming the back electrodes, are patterned by hot melt inkjet printing. With this process, we obtain high short-circuit current densities close to 40 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltages exceeding 720 mV, leading to a conversion efficiency of 21.5%. However, moderate fill factor values limit our current device efficiencies. Unhindered carrier transport through both heterocontact layer stacks, as well as higher passivation quality over the minority carrier-injection range relevant for solar cell operation, are identified as key factors for improved fill factor values and device performance.