Journal article

Innovation and Market Structure in Pharmaceuticals: An Econometric Analysis on Simulated Data

The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it presents the results of a "history-friendly" simulation model of evolution of the pharmaceutical industry. Second, it aims at contributing to a more general methodological discussion about agent-based models by proposing an econometric analysis of the results of the simulations. The case of the pharmaceutical industry has been studied extensively by scholars because, despite the high level of R&D; intensity, the industry has been characterized by a relatively low levels of concentration. The model is able to reproduce the main stylized facts of the industry in an evolutionary perspective. In this paper we extend the analysis conducted in two previous works (Garavaglia et al. 2012, 2013) by further qualifying the findings with an extensive econometric investigation of the model outputs. The paper focuses the attention on the determinants of market structure, the innovative performance of the industry, the diversification in multiple submarkets and the level of prices. We find that the properties of the technological and demand regimes are key determinants of the patterns of industry evolution and that the main mechanisms driving the model are the random processes of search, the discovery of new submarkets as well as the interactions between patent protection, imitation and price competition. In addition, this paper emphasizes how the emerging leaders in the industry are those innovative early entrants which entered in large submarkets, showing the importance of the first mover advantage and of the size of the "prize" accruing to innovators when they discover a new rich submarket.


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