Parallel imaging with phase scrambling
PURPOSE: Most existing methods for accelerated parallel imaging in MRI require additional data, which are used to derive information about the sensitivity profile of each radiofrequency (RF) channel. In this work, a method is presented to avoid the acquisition of separate coil calibration data for accelerated Cartesian trajectories. METHODS: Quadratic phase is imparted to the image to spread the signals in k-space (aka phase scrambling). By rewriting the Fourier transform as a convolution operation, a window can be introduced to the convolved chirp function, allowing a low-resolution image to be reconstructed from phase-scrambled data without prominent aliasing. This image (for each RF channel) can be used to derive coil sensitivities to drive existing parallel imaging techniques. As a proof of concept, the quadratic phase was applied by introducing an offset to the x2 - y2 shim and the data were reconstructed using adapted versions of the image space-based sensitivity encoding and GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions algorithms. RESULTS: The method is demonstrated in a phantom (1 x 2, 1 x 3, and 2 x 2 acceleration) and in vivo (2 x 2 acceleration) using a 3D gradient echo acquisition. CONCLUSION: Phase scrambling can be used to perform parallel imaging acceleration without acquisition of separate coil calibration data, demonstrated here for a 3D-Cartesian trajectory. Further research is required to prove the applicability to other 2D and 3D sampling schemes.