Impedance Spectroscopic Analysis of Lead Iodide Perovskite-Sensitized Solid-State Solar Cells
Mesoscopic solid-state solar cells based on the inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite CH(3)NH(3)Pbl(3) in conjunction with the amorphous organic semiconductor spiro-MeOTAD as a hole transport material (HIM) are investigated using impedance spectroscopy (IS). A model to interpret the frequency response of these devices is established by expanding and elaborating on the existing models used for the liquid and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Furthermore, the influence of changing the additive concentrations of tert-butylpyridine and LiTFSI in the HIM and varying the HIM overlayer thickness on top of the sub-micrometer thick TiO2 on the extracted IS parameters is investigated. The internal electrical processes of such devices are studied and correlated with the overall device performance. In particular, the features in the IS responses that are attributed to the ionic and electronic transport properties of the perovskite material and manifest as a slow response at low frequency and an additional RC element at intermediate frequency, respectively, are explored.