Dislocations and grain boundaries are intrinsic topological defects of large-scale polycrystalline samples of graphene. These structural irregularities have been shown to strongly affect electronic transport in this material. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the transmission of charge carriers across the grain-boundary defects in polycrystalline graphene by means of the Landauer-Buttiker formalism within the tight-binding approximation. Calculations reveal a strong suppression of transmission at low energies upon decreasing the density of dislocations with the smallest Burgers vector b = (1,0). The observed transport anomaly is explained from the point of view of resonant backscattering due to localized states of topological origin. These states are related to the gauge field associated with all dislocations characterized by b = (n,m) with n - m not equal 3q (q is an element of Z). Our work identifies an important source of charge-carrier scattering caused by the topological defects present in large-area graphene samples produced by chemical vapor deposition.