Journal article

Correction of wandering smoothing effects on static measurements of a wing-tip vortex

Wandering is a typical feature of wing-tip vortices and it consists in random fluctuations of the vortex core. Consequently, vortices measured by static measuring techniques appear to be more diffuse than in reality, so that a correction method is needed. In the present paper statistical simulations of the wandering of a Lamb-Oseen vortex are first performed by representing the vortex core locations through bi-variate normal probability density functions. It is found that wandering amplitudes smaller than 60% of the core radius are well predicted by using the ratio between the RMS value of the mean cross-velocity and its slope measured at the mean vortex center. Furthermore, the principal axes of wandering can be accurately evaluated from the opposite of the cross-correlation coefficient between the spanwise and the normal velocities measured at the mean vortex center. The correction of the wandering smoothing effects is then carried out through four different algorithms that perform the deconvolution of the mean velocity field with the probability density function that represents the wandering. The corrections performed are very accurate for the simulations with wandering amplitudes smaller than 60% of the core radius, whereas errors become larger with increasing wandering amplitudes. Subsequently, the whole procedure to evaluate wandering and to correct the mean velocity field is applied to static measurements, carried out with a fast-response five-hole pressure probe, of a tip vortex generated from a NACA 0012 half-wing model. It is found that the wandering is predominantly in the upward-outboard to downward-inboard direction. Furthermore, the wandering amplitude grows with increasing streamwise distance from the wing, whereas it decreases with increasing angle of attack and free-stream velocity.

Related material


EPFL authors