We identified a mutation in the Diet1 gene in a mouse strain that is resistant to hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Diet1 encodes a 236 kD protein consisting of tandem low-density lipoprotein receptor and MAM (meprin-A5-protein tyrosine phosphatase mu) domains and is expressed in the enterocytes of the small intestine. Diet1-deficient mice exhibited an elevated bile acid pool size and impaired feedback regulation of hepatic Cyp7a1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. In mouse intestine and in cultured human intestinal cells, Diet1 expression levels influenced the production of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), a hormone that signals from the intestine to liver to regulate Cyp7a1. Transgenic expression of Diet1, or adenoviral-mediated Fgf15 expression, restored normal Cyp7a1 regulation in Diet-1-deficient mice. Diet1 and FGF19 proteins exhibited overlapping subcellular localization in cultured intestinal cells. These results establish Diet1 as a control point in enterohepatic bile acid signaling and lipid homeostasis.